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2017/7/19EdgardoReyesRethinking Rice Straw Supply Chain for Bioethanol Production in the Agricultural Context of Taiwan n Taiwan, a large quantity of rice straw is buried or burned after harvest. To tackle issues of air pollution and energy alternatives, the government has been studying the feasibility of using rice straw to produce bioethanol and other forms of energy. Nevertheless, most of these studies were conducted by environmental or energy engineering institutions. To enable the plans of straw collection to be adopted by farmers in the agricultural context, this research reviewed the assumptions of early studies and discussed the relevant issues in the supply chain for bioethanol. An in-depth interview was also carried out with the leader of Taiwan Riceplant Association to confirm the conditions of rice harvest. Results showed studies were optimistic with the time interval of rice straw collection between crops; also, labor cost for operating agricultural machines was underestimated. Based on findings, the cost of straw collection might be much higher than previous estimations.
2017/7/20EdgardoReyesCost Assessment of Bioethanol Production from Rice Straw in Taiwan Rice straw is one of the most abundant agricultural residues in Taiwan. In recent years, the government attempts to establish a bioethanol industry from rice straw to address energy crisis and environmental concerns. But the economic cost might be a determining factor for bioethanol industry development and policy making. This study, therefore, assessed the process and the unit cost of bioethanol production from rice straw based on the agricultural conditions and current capacity of equipment and technologies. The assessed sectors included rice straw baling, hauling, refinery investment, processing, and delivery cost to gas stations. The results showed the unit cost of bioethanol from rice straw was 45-64 NTD per L. The highest proportions of the production cost were the unit costs of baling and processing. Furthermore, to supply rice straw-based bioethanol with the common gasoline price, the government would need to subsidize around 20-39 NTD per L. Keywords: rice straw, agricultural residues, bioethanol industry, economic cost
2017/7/23EdgardoReyesPotential Quantity and Economic Costs of Bioethanol Production from Rice Straw in Taiwan Bioethanol is one of the widely used renewable energy to reduce the dependence on fossil fuel in the world. Taiwan has promoted bioenergy for a decade, but the bioethanol industry remains in the demonstration stage because of indeterminate sources of feedstock and lacking biorefinery plants. To further enhance the usage penetration and local supply of bioethanol, this study estimated the potential production of bioethanol from rice straw, the major agricultural residues in Taiwan. The economic cost for transport was also used to determine the optimal location for local bioethanol production among the counties. Results showed 5.9 million kL of E3 gasohol could be produced from rice straw and supplement 58% of the annual gasoline consumption in Taiwan. Nevertheless, only six rural counties were able to meet the E3 policy target with their local rice straw production, and the lowest costs were obtained in the eastern part of Taiwan. Keywords: bioenergy policy, renewable energy, bioethanol industry, rice straw, E3 gasohol
2011/6/29EduardoAriasPre-feasibility assessment of a grid-connected photovoltaic power plant in Honduras This paper examines the pre-feasibility of a grid-connected PV power plant in Honduras. The study utilizes data from NASA through the Solar and Wind Energy Resource Assessment Program (SWERA). The pre-feasibility assessment of the proposed PV power plant is simulated using RETScreen software. Initial results showed an annual electricity generation of 2,329 MWh, with a capacity factor of 23.5%. Financial indicators calculated, such as internal rate of return, simple payback period, net present value, benefit-cost ratio and energy production cost, indicate favorable conditions for the development of PV systems in Honduras. An electricity rate of US$ 0.24/kWh is recommended to make the project financially attractive. It was found that a minimum of 1,855 tons of CO2, equivalent to 4,314 barrels of not consumed crude oil, can be avoided annually by the implementation of the proposed PV power plant.
2011/6/13LilyGuerraMeasuring Hospital Efficiency in Belize: A Data Envelopment Analysis Approach Measuring Hospital Efficiency in Belize: A Data Envelopment Analysis Approach Lily Jamini Guerra1, Yi-Hsin Elsa Hsu 1*, Jin-Yuan Chern2, Bill Wang3, Chiung-hsuan Chiu1 1. School of Health Care Administration, Taipei Medical University 2. Department of Health Care Administration, Chang-Jung University 3. Department of Health Care Administration, Asia University, Taiwan Abstract In 2001, the Government of Belize introduced a New Healthcare Reform Proposal aiming to improve efficiency in health service delivery. To date, no research has been conducted to measure efficiency of the public sector hospitals. Hence, this study aims at assessing the technical efficiency of the 7 public hospitals in Belize; evaluates performance variations among the 4 regions; and proposes new approaches for controlling costs and improving quality. The analysis was based on an 8-year data panel from the 7-public operated hospitals in Belize. Data envelopment analysis (DEA) which is a non-parametric approach was used to assess the technical efficiency thus yielding a 0.89 score while a simple linear regression indicated no statistical significance between the efficiency scores and the year or the hospital. This study executes the first baseline mechanism pertaining to technical efficiency information which could be used by the respective governmental authorities in monitoring future efficiency performances. Keywords: Data envelopment analysis, public hospitals, technical efficiency
2011/7/11ShakesMavusoEffect of Fertilizer Rates and Pruning Regimes on the Yield of Jatropha curcas L. Growing in Taiwan Effect of Fertilizer Rates and Pruning Regimes on the Yield of Jatropha curcas L. Growing in Taiwan Shakes Mavuso1, Su Ju Lin*, G. Stanley Chen1 and Chi-Wen Wu3 1Department of Tropical Agriculture and International Cooperation, National Pingtung University of Science and Technology, 912, Taiwan 2Department of Plant Industry, National Pingtung University of Science and Technology, 912, Taiwan 3Kaohsiung District Agricultural Research and Extension Station, Taiwan *: Corresponding Author Email: youyou@mail.npust.edu.tw FAX: 886-8-7740415 ABSTRACT This study was conducted to determine the effect of different fertilizer rates (0, 150, 300 and 450 grams per plant of NPK 15-15-15+4Mg granular fertilizer and pruning regimes (1/2 and 2/3 branch pruning) on the yield of three-year old J. curcas L. germplasms (Taiwan, Thailand and Guizhou growing in Taiwan. The results showed that split fertilizer application had no significant effects on the seed and oil yield characters. However, there were significant differences among the three J. curcas L. germplasms based on total number of fruits, total number of seeds, and total seed dry weight. The single full dose fertilizer application showed significant differences in total number of fruits, total number of seeds, total seed dry weight, average seed number per fruit, and oil yield. The seed oil content in percent ranged from 25.7 to 37.2% per plant, respectively. There were no significant differences between pruning regimes on the seed yield and oil yield parameters. Key words: Jatropha curcas L., fertilizer rates, pruning regimes, seed yield, oil content, canopy management
2011/8/6vanessacaseyJOB STRESS AND ORGANIZATIONAL COMMITMENT OF TEACHERS AT DENOMINATIONAL AND GOVERNMENT SECONDARY SCHOOLS IN BELIZE ABSTRACT This study proposed a conceptual model aimed to predict teachers’ organizational commitment based on job stress and demographics. A pilot test was conducted to test the reliability of questionnaires adopted from previous studies on job stress and organizational commitment. The SPSS soft ware for Windows was used to analyze the data. The findings of this study revealed that job stress hinders teachers’ organizational commitment. More specifically, role ambiguity has a negative relationship with affective and normative commitment. Role overload and role conflict both have a negative relationship with affective commitment. There were no significant differences in job stress and organizational commitment level between two school types. As for the demographic factors, the mean difference of job stress was significant between teachers working four to six years and those working above ten years. Key words: Job Stress, Organizational Commitment
2011/8/4AndreaPineda RaquelThe Relationships of Previous International Experience, Pre-departure Cross-cultural Preparation, Personality, Social Support, and Multicultural Competence In this study, the major purpose was to investigate the effects that previous international experience, pre-departure cross-cultural preparation, personality (extraversion, agreeableness, conscientiousness, neuroticism, and openness) and social support had on multicultural competence. A total of 108 English as a second language (ESL) teachers, living in either Taiwan or China, participated in the study. For the purpose of this study a quantitative approach was adopted. Results from the correlation analysis were used to show that the two variables of personality and pre-departure cross-cultural preparation have a positive effect on multicultural competence. The regression analysis showed the personality trait of openness and pre-departure cross-cultural preparation affected an ESL teacher’s multicultural competence. Familial support was found to have a negative effect on multicultural competence while support from significant others was found to have a positive effect on multicultural competence.
2011/12/21OdetteVarelaRelationship between Solid Waste Pollution and Polluted Drinkable Typical problems have been identified as factors accentuating the drinkable water pollution: inadequate coverage of the population to be served and limited utilization of the informal and formal private sector in recycling activities. A system comprising effective solid waste management in El Salvador is needed for tackling the drinkable water pollution and its related problems. Indeed, solid waste treatment will considerably reduce ground water pollution and other related environmental problems. Various steps involved in the task that require immediate attention are; targeting waste reduction at source, market actions for waste reduction, mandatory standards for waste reduction and education, and voluntary compliance. For a country like El Salvador, reducing the quantity of waste that must be transported and disposed should be a primary goal. The municipalities can address the solid waste and its related water pollution problems by following the strategies discussed in this paper.
2011/12/16LUISGOMEZLUCIANOEstablishment of rapid screening method for drought tolerance of rice genotypes at seedling stage Luis B. Gomez-Luciano1, Shih-Hong Su2, Chih-Wen Wu3, and Ching-Hsiang Hsieh2* 1. Department of Tropical Agriculture and International Cooperation, 2. Department of Plant Industry, National Pingtung University of Science and Technology, and, 3. Kaohsiung District Agricultural Research and Extension Station, Taiwan. *Corresponding Author: 1 Hsueh Fu Road, Neipu Hsian, Pingtung Hsien, Taiwan 91201. Tel: 886-8-7740429 Ext.6243. Fax: 886-8-7740415. E-Mail:hsieh@mail.npust.edu.tw. Date of submission: December 16, 2011 Lack of accurate screening techniques is one factor limiting development of tolerant cultivar to drought, which is the most important constraint in rice productivity. We did three experiments to establish screening method and screen drought tolerance rice genotypes at seedling stage. First, we selected two soil mixtures (2:1 and 3:1) with steady drying slope. Second, evaluation of three genotypes in vivo showed higher stress on soil mixture 2:1 than in 3:1. Variety KH7 showed better resistant while TS2 was least. Third, in vivo evaluation of three genotypes under polyethylene glycol (PEG) stressed conditions present TCS17 with higher tolerance to drought over TNGS14 and CSY112. A rapid, simple, and feasible technique which combines the use of nursery trays and polyethylene glycol (PEG) tissue culture test to select drought tolerance rice genotypes at seedling stage under controlled conditions was developed. Key words: drought tolerance, rice genotypes, screening, seedling stage